(Kama salt) – is the north city of Perm region. The city starts
its history from 1430, when on the river Usolka was organized the
settlement which was called Kama Salt. In XVI century on the territory
of the future Solikamsk salt was found and the city became the only
where salt was extracted – it was a real “salt-cellar” of Russia.
Here different kinds of salt were extracted, processed and prepared
to be used in food and industrial purposes. To the large cities of
western Russia salt was transported by Kama. Solikamsk became the
city of the state importance from 1636 to 1738 it was an official capital
Solikamsk has the status of the historical reserved city. It is situated
in one row with such famous all over the world cities as Suzdal,
Vladimir, Novgorod, Pskov.
will amuse everyone who sees it for the first time. Here you can visibly
reflect the breath of the olden days. A unique thing is the central
architecture ensemble of the city.
Built in the form of the horseshoe it includes the rarest by its decoration
Cross constructing cathedral, a bell tower, Voskresenskaya church, Troitzk
cathedral, Bogoyavlenskaya church and Voevoda house.
The leading place in the ensemble has the Troitzk cathedral (1685-1697)
– the most monumental and picturesque building of the city. Its pyramidal-graduated
composition with the beautiful decoration of figure bricks leads in
the panorama of the city building. It is also remarkable by the fact
that the icon of Nikolaus the miracle-maker, presented by Ivan the
Terrible was kept.
Near it there is the 60-meters spire of the cathedral’s bell tower,
which was built on the ridge of a steep slope in 1713. Probably the
most interesting church of the city – Bogoyavlenskaya with the side-altar
of Vladimir God’s Mother. At the external look attracts the great number
of glazed tiles. At the entire look – carved wooden iconostasis (a wall,
covered with the rare collection of icons) of the Stroganov’s painting.
In Solikamsk you can also acquaint with the oldest stone building of
the civil architecture of the XVII century in the Urals. This is
the Voevoda House. There are
loopholes in the walls of two meters’ thickness. Under
the building there is a stone arch of the underground tent and the
doors with a huge lock, which helps in the case of a danger, turning
the building in the fortress.
The architect guiding line of the eastern part of the city makes the Ioanno-Predtechenskaya
church – a majestic work of Prikamye’s architects of the first
quarter of the XVIII century and the building of the Voznesenskiy monastery,
founded in 1589.
In Solikamsk you can see the rarest monuments of the wooden architecture
– industrial buildings of Ust-Borovskoy salt factor. The complex includes
brine-lifting towers, salt chests, salt boiling units, salt warehouses,
smithies, bath-houses, civil houses.
Different epochs in the development of the salt boiling business, masters’
and workers’ factory way of life are exposed in the museum “Salts
of Prikamye”. Not long ago by the initiative of the scientists and
museum workers it was recommended to be included in the List of the
World’s Legacy of UNESKO.
Being in Solikamsk you can also go on the excursion to salt mines. Before
you get down to the mine you should dress into the costume of the mine
worker, put on the safety helmets and equip with a lamp and oxygen balloon. All
this equipment is needed according to severe measures of safeness.
To avoid accidents you should follow the instructor.
One of the lifts of the mine, accommodating about 30 people will place
you and the guide to one of the levels of the mine. From this place
a special bus will take you by the labyrinth of the shaft to the place
where even now the works of salt extraction are covered.
In the past the work was done with the help of simple hand boring-drilling
machine, which made not only great noise and worked not very fast but
was very harmful for the health of the miners.
Nowadays modern huge excavators are used which perforate rocks with
the help of 30 revolving cogged discs. At the same time alluvial
breed, rich in salt, is transported by long belts.
And, moreover modern ventilation always blows the fresh air to the
tunnels, as it is very dusty here. But opposite to the other types of
mines the dusty air here is even useful for health because it is rich
in salts, wholesome influencing the lungs of a man. Sometimes the visits
to mines are prescribed to improve the health.
A comment of an inhabitant
"Solikamsk is one of the oldest cities of
the Perm region but it is not old. The city is mature, sure in its
originality and is full of unvain dignity. It is mostly felt in the
historical center of the city where the cathedrals of the 17-18 century
adjoin with modern buildings. On the central street a fast rhythm of
modern life can be felt, but if you go forward to the old courts, the
life slows down and flows slowly and evenly.
A walk along the winter Solikamsk on a sunny day will
be unforgettable. There are whitened roads, trees, white walls of the
cathedrals but everything brightens under the sun: snow and golden domes
of the churches are the fairy kingdom dying down in a wonderful dream.
There are so few walkers that you can start thinking that the time slows down”.